100 Years Ago Today: Bolshevism and Breckenridge

Summit County Journal, February 1, 1919

Naively, I thought I could brush up on Bolshevism, the Russian Revolution, Communism, the Red Army, Anarchism, and the I.W.W. circa 1919 in a couple of hours in order to write up some context for today’s article. This, despite the fact that the last time I learned about any of these topics I was spending my free time listening to Korn and skateboarding through mall parking lots in JNCOs. Nope nope nope.

What I do know is that anti-Bolshevism op-ed and news articles pop up nearly every day in 1919 newspapers, so the anxiety on display in today’s article is not surprising.

What is Bolshevism and why are there so many articles opposed to it?

The Bolsheviks were a group started in Russia by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky in order to bring Marxism to Russia and beyond. Bolshevism was later known as Communism, an attempt to create a classless society where everyone is equal.

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Vladimir Lenin
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Leon Trotsky

Frank Engels, coauthor of the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx, lays out the aims of Communism as such:

“Finally, when all capital, all production, all exchange have been brought together in the hands of the nation, private property will disappear of its own accord, money will become superfluous, and production will so expand and man so change that society will be able to slough off whatever of its old economic habits may remain.”

The Communist Manifesto (1847)

Why did Bolshevism have so much opposition in the U.S.?

Communism/Bolshevism and Capitalism are, of course, at odds with one another, and the two political/economic systems have not played well with one another over the last 100 years.

There has always been, and probably always will be, people who have been crushed by Capitalism and would like to try a different system. Bolshevism is a promise to the lowest wage earners, the most overlooked, the least powerful people in a Capitalist system that they will have just as much as their former employers under a new system.

Today’s article posits that Bolshevism falsely promises that the “ordinary man would remain safe.” But what if you’re not safe at all in a Capitalist country? What if you’re an immigrant working the Ludlow, CO coal mines? What if you’re a woman with limited work opportunities? What if you’re a soldier returning from war to an impoverished small town? These are people who might decide that Capitalism isn’t keeping them safe, and maybe their country should give Bolshevism a try.

In the U.S. in 1919, the workforce was in transition. World War I ended with the armistice on November 11, 1918, and young soldiers were coming home, not knowing what kinds of jobs were available, nor if they were qualified for them. In many instances, women had taken jobs that men had done before they went overseas, and in Colorado, immigrants had taken work in the mines because these very dangerous positions were some of the only jobs people would actually hire them for. Would this transitional period make people more likely to ask for a different economic system? Maybe one with more parity?

Bolshevism was on everyone’s tongue. Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky were masters of propaganda, and they capably spread their idea of overthrowing the ruling class in order to bring “peace, land, and bread” back to the starving working class in Russia and throughout the entire world. Bolshevism was one of the hottest buzz words in the entire world in 1919, and that scared the hell out of people who were safe and secure and powerful because it could mean losing everything they’d worked for.

News reports of Bolshevist uprisings in Europe were covered daily in newspapers. Many articles conflated Anarchism with Bolshevism and lumping those two incongruous movements together. The Bolshevik uprisings in countries were sometimes violent, and newspapers played that aspect up as well, likely because fear sells papers.

Indeed, Anarchism would be a cause for very real fear later in April 1919, when Anarchists called Galleanists (followers of Luigi Galleani) mailed 36 dynamite filled bombs to prominent political figures and other people with power throughout the U.S.. Then in June 1919, eight larger bombs were detonated simultaneously outside homes and offices of other prominent figures.

100 years ago today, Bolshevism was the dangerous buzzword around the globe, even in the small mining town of Breckenridge, CO. Fear of this new economic/political system was all over the news, and the post-war transitional instability in the workforce made Bolshevism seem like it could be coming to a city, town, or government near you.

100 Years Ago Today: White Gold Saves Colorado Economy

Morgan County Republican, Volume 19, Number 4, January 24, 1919

All hail the sugar beet, aka white gold, a crop that can actually grow in Colorado’s arid climate and rocky soil! In 1919 the sugar beet reached an all time high price of $10.02 per ton paid to beet farmers, which was two cents per ton higher than the national average. No wonder growers were looking to expand their farms 30 to 100 percent that year.

But why the rise of the sugar beet? A series of events led to increased demand for sugar grown and refined in the U.S.

  • Sugar tariffs were imposed on imported sugar
  • Land treaties removed Indians from their native lands and opened these lands to white farmers
  • Laborers worked for low wages: Russian, German, and Hispanic immigrants, as well as Indians were willing to perform very difficult labor for little money
  • European immigrants brought sugar beet seeds and sugar refinery equipment to the U.S.
Sugar beet field circa 1900
photo courtesy Denver Public Library

Let’s back up a few years.

In 1899, Colorado’s economy was in flux. Silver and gold mining proved unsustainable after the silver crash and ensuing panic of 1893 that left 18% of the population unemployed. Ranching failed to generate the kind of revenue needed to support towns and cities. Infrastructure for Colorado tourism was not yet established, for roads had not yet been built to take travelers into the mountains, and the railroads were not reliable over the high mountains, nor were they affordable for the working class.

Enter Charles Boettcher, German immigrant and American entrepreneur, who made his fortune opening hardware stores across Colorado and selling equipment to hardrock miners in towns like Leadville.

Charles Boettcher (1852-1948)

On a trip back to Germany in 1899, Boettcher saw the sugar beet industry in the German countryside and realized the potential for this cash cow in Colorado. Legend has it that Boettcher took one of his wife’s luggage bags, emptied it, and filled it with sugar beet seed to take back to Colorado.

The same year, Boettcher opened the first sugar beet processing factory in Grand Junction, Colorado. In the next few years, he opened a sugar mills in the towns of Loveland and Greeley, north of Denver. He and New York businessman Henry O. Havemeyer founded the Great Western Sugar Company in 1905, and by 1906 he opened a sugar refinery in Fort Morgan, which had the capacity to produce 600 tons per day. The postcard below (unknown date) says the factory has the capacity to produce 1200 tons per day.

Fort Morgan Sugar Beet Factory postcard

Every town where there was a sugar beet factory and/or farm prospered economically from the industry until the 1950s and 1960s when imported cane sugar became popular. For the next five decades the industry steadily declined, and now the only sugar beet refinery factory remaining is in Fort Morgan. However, sugar beet farming has seen some resurgence in recent years, with improved land use efficiency techniques.

Sugar beets circa 1920
photo courtesy Denver Public Library

100 years ago today, sugar beet farming and sugar refining was more profitable than ever in Colorado and continued to play a key role in the economy of towns across the state in the post-mining era.

Be sure to check out the Colorado Exeperience episode on the rise and fall of the sugar beet industry in Colorado called “White Gold” below:

Colorado Experience (RMPBS) presents White Gold